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         around lower  reel  52 and secondary reel  54. Upper cable
         portion 48 of brake line 40, travelling in direction 48A, then
         exits reel frame 55. Lower reel 52 and secondary reel 54 may
         be rotatably interconnected by a chain or a belt (not shown).
           Other  methods  or  reel  configurations  may  be  used  to
         increase frictional contact between brake line 40 and the
         reels. For example, instead of being looped around reels 52,
         54; brake line 40 may be wound multiple times around a
         single lower reel. Figure 23 depicts lower reel 52A rotat-
         ably mounted on reel frame  53A. Lower cable portion  46
         of brake line 40 enters lower reel 52A. Intermediate por-
         tion 47 of brake line 40 is then wound twice around lower
         reel 52A. Upper cable portion 48 of brake line 40 then exits
         lower reel 52A. Lower reel 52A may have a wide, smooth
         cylindrical surface 65 to accommodate multiple windings of
         brake line 40 (i.e. intermediate portion 47). Surface 65 may
         be coated with rubber, plastic or other material to reduce
         wear on brake line 40. In addition to, or instead of the above   Figure 23: End elevation view of a reel, showing a brake line wrapped
                                                              around the reel and a brake coupled to the reel.
         methods, frictional resistance may be provided in the reels’
         rotational support mechanisms.                       controller (not shown).
           A remote  brake actuator  58 may  be provided  to control   Each reel may have at least one circumferential  groove
         engagement and disengagement of a brake coupled to a reel.   for guiding and positioning brake line 40 on the reel. The
         For example, brakes 56 coupled to lower reel 52 may be hy-  groove may be a depression in the reel’s outer surface, or a
         draulically-assisted caliper brakes 59 (figure 22) and remote   channel between the reel’s opposed circumferential flanges.
         brake actuator 58 may be a hand-operated lever, which can   In the embodiment shown in figure 19, upper reel 50 may
         be squeezed by an operator to engage brakes 56 or released   have one circumferential groove, since brake line 40 passes
         to disengage brakes  56,  similarly  to the  braking  devices   around reel 50 only once. Lower reel 52 and secondary reel
         on bicycles. Alternately, brakes 56 may be another kind of   54 may have two laterally-spaced circumferential grooves,
         brake operable to slow the rate of rotation of lower reel 52,   since  brake  line  40  doubles  back  around  reels  52,  54.  As
         such as disc brakes, magnetic brakes, eddy current brakes,   seen in figure 22, lower reel 52 has a first groove 62 which
         regenerative brakes (electric,  gas compression  or other),   receives lower cable portion 46 as it enters the reel, and a
         air-resistance  fan  brakes,  or  simply the direct application   second groove 64 which guides intermediate cable portion 47
         of hand pressure. By way of example, figure 23 shows disc   until it exits the reel as upper cable portion 48. If no second-
         brakes 56A which engage disk brake rotors 57 coupled to   ary reel 54 is provided, and if brake line 40 passes around
         lower reel 52A. Brakes 56 or 56A may be controlled manual-  lower reel 52 only once, there may be only one circumferen-
         ly by a zipline operator or automatically by a programmable   tial groove on lower reel 52. If brake line 40 is wound around
                                                              reel 52A multiple times as shown in figure 23, reel 52A may
                                                              have a smooth ungrooved surface.
                                                              Elevator
                                                              Pat. 9,573,792 U.S. class B66B 11/004 Int. class B66B 7/06
                                                              Inventor:  Esko  Aulanko,  Kerava,  FI.,  Jorma  Ratanen,
                                                              Hyvinkaa, FI., Simo Makimattila, Espoo, FI.
                                                              Assignee: KONE Corporation, Helsinki, FI.
                                                               An elevator may include: a hoisting machine; a set of hoist-
                                                              ing ropes; a traction sheave that comprises a plurality of
                                                              grooves;  and  diverting  pulleys.  The  hoisting  machine  may
                                                              engage the set of ropes via the traction sheave. Each groove
                                                              may have an opening for receiving an individual rope. Each
                                                              rope may include steel wires of circular, non-circular, or cir-
                                                              cular and non-circular cross-section, twisted together to form
                                                              strands. The strands of each rope may be twisted together
                                                              to form the respective rope. A thickness of each rope may be
                                                              greater than or equal to about 2.5 mm and less than or equal
                                                              to about 8 mm. An average of wire thicknesses of the steel
                                                              wires may be greater than or equal to 0.1 mm and less than
                                                              or equal to 0.4 mm. The strength of the steel wires may be
                                                                                  2
                                                              greater than 2,300 N/mm  and less than 3,000 N/mm .
                                                                                                         2
                                                               Figure 24 is a diagrammatic representation of the struc-
                                                              ture of an elevator. The elevator is preferably an elevator
                                                              without machine room, in which  the drive machine  6 is
                                                              placed in the elevator shaft. The elevator shown in the fig-
                                                              ure is a traction sheave elevator with machine above. The
                                                              passage of the hoisting ropes 3 of the elevator is as follows:
         Figure 22: Reel shown in elevation and the frame partially sectioned.  One  end  of  the  ropes  is  immovably  fixed  to  an  anchorage
         62     Wire Rope News & Sling Technology   April 2017
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