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 Sea  Link  Wooden  Shell                                     at least one wire rope.
           As further illustrated in figures 5 and 6, one or more opti-
         cal fibers 3 are entwined with at least some of the wire ropes,
                                                               The optical fibers can be individual fibers. Alternatively,
 Construction  &  Fishing  Blocks                             an optical fiber cable which contains one or more individual
         in such a manner that the one or more optical fibers 3 are
         contacting at least some of the wire ropes in the cable. In
                                                              optical  fiber  elements  can  be  employed.  The  one  or  more
         the illustrated embodiment, the optical fiber 3 is arranged
         between and contacting the core rope 20 and two of the outer   optical fiber elements are typically individually coated with
                                                              plastic layers and contained in a protective tube. Each op-
 S Siinnggllees  •  Ds  •  Doouubblleess • •   T Trriipplleess • •   R Reegguullaar  ar  annd  Hd  Heeaavvy  Wy  Wooooddeen  Bn  Blloocckkss  tical fiber has a transparent core which transmits an opti-
         ropes 30. With reference to figure 8, an alternative arrange-
         ment of the optical fibers and wire ropes is illustrated. Here,   cal signal and a transparent cladding around the core. The
         two optical fibers 3 are each independently wrapped around   core and the cladding of each optical fiber can be made of
         an outer rope 30 and also contacting at least the core rope   glass or plastic.
         20. This configuration would be expected to result in the op-  In  some  embodiments,  glass  optical  fibers  are  typically
         tical fiber contacting the wound outer rope, the two adjacent   made of silica. Alternatively, glass optical fibers may con-
         outer ropes that abut the wound rope, as well as the core   tain some other materials, such as fluorozirconate, fluoro-
         rope; thus, four ropes would directly contact the optical fiber.   aluminate, and chalcogenide glasses, crystalline materials
         The pitch and winding patterns of the optical fibers around   like sapphire for other special purposes. Silica and fluoride
         the wire ropes may be varied depending on the actual usage   glasses usually have refractive indices of about 1.5, but some
         and environment. Other linear or helical arrangements of   materials such as the chalcogenides can have indices as high
         the one or more optical fibers may be used as long as the re-  as 3. Typically the index difference between core and clad-
         inforcing cable includes at least one optical fiber contacting   ding  is  less  than  one  percent.  Plastic  optical  fibers  (POF)
                                                              are typically step-index multi-mode fibers with a core having
                                                              the diameter of 0.5 millimeters or larger. POF typically have
                                                              higher attenuation coefficients than glass fibers, 1 dB/m or
                                                              higher, and this high attenuation limits the range of POF-
 All  Material  Factory  Certified                            based systems.
 Wooden  Shell  Blocks  3”  to  16”                            In  order  to detect  slight  changes  in  cable  integrity over
                                                              time, a glass fiber may be preferred for its excellent long-
 For  more  Associated  Wire  Rope  &  Rigging,  Inc. Waterman  Supply  Co.,  Inc.  term  reliability.  Additionally,  a  single-mode  fiber  may  be
 information,  8125  Saran  Drive,  Playa  Del  Rey,  CA  90293  910  Mahar  Ave.,  Wilmington,  CA  90748  desired in some embodiments, due to its smaller transmis-
 contact:  Ph:  1-800-901-1135  Fax:  310-448-5446  Ph:  1-800-322-3131  Fax:  310-522-1043  sion loss over long distances and higher sensitivity to lateral
 Email:  awrrinc@earthlink.net  Email:  waterman@bigplanet.com  pressure applied to the optical fiber, e.g., from the ropes 20
                                                              and 30 between which the optical fiber 3 may be sandwiched
         Figure 8: Exposed side view of an embodiment of a reinforcing cable
         showing optical fibers wound around wire ropes within the cable.                      continued on next page
 Wire  Rope  News  &  Sling  Technology          August  2006  37  Wire Rope News & Sling Technology   June 2017  55
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